Bit of advice on that. A router sled is in a sense, a cheap homemade CNC when it comes to flattening. No perdiste detalle!!! This DIY plan takes a totally different approach to building a router sled. We’ll help you to make your home give you and your family as much beauty, happiness and joy as possible. Circle saw or table saw. The tutorial has all the measurements and cutting requirements. This casual look is easy to update at any time. Then collect six pieces of equal wood plants to use as the carriage base. There are a few steps that you need to follow to ensure the rail works seamlessly when sanding. If you don’t have a jointer or a planer or you need to flatten something large or difficult to flatten, a building a simple sled for your router is a great solution. To cut the bottom of the sled, use your router’s base to set the width of the cut. Lastly, you will need to attach both pieces to create the router sled. Hi! I'm so glad you find my work useful! Essential materials list, 3. I made mine 3″ high. See more ideas about router sled, woodworking, jays custom creations. The project only requires you to cut the metal bars into an appropriate size then lay them out to attach and create the carriage. First you’ll want to take some 3/4″ plywood and laminate 2 pieces together, to create some 1-1/2″ fence stock. Now set the sled on the rails to get the spacing set correctly. This project works well with plywood, MDF, or regular wood. See more ideas about woodworking, wood diy, router sled. I made mine 3″ high. Nov 18, 2020 - Explore Alanna Lundstrom's board "woodworking" on Pinterest. I also used a shim here to remove any rocking. It only takes one time of the router bit slipping down deeper than you planned to spoil your work. Reply The tutorial explains the measurements as well as the tools you should use. I would not recommend glue for these rails. Thanks again, my friend. Easiest DIY Router Sled. Now add a scrap piece of 3/4″ ply as a spacer and again glue the second rail to the sled snugly against the scrap piece. The upsides to a router sled … If you want to create a DIY router sled but dread the whole measuring and cutting process of wood, this metal design might be the best for you. Repeat this for the other side. It is baltic birch plywood, mahogany and flame maple. Keep your hinge mechanisms tight as hell. Cut a 1/8″ deep dado the width of your rails (1 1/2″) centered on the rail bottoms. My first attempt was a tiny bit loose and it made dog food out of it. This is the depth you will cut to. With that done the bottom is complete. It takes a short time to complete and the router sled works well to level any wood surface. Dust Collection. The steps outlined are easy to follow and explain the process from measuring to cutting and attaching. I made one a while ago but with metal rails, and whatever else I had in the shop at the time. View the build video here: bit.ly/youtuberoutersled View the full walkthrough and DOWNLOADABLE PLANS on my website: How to Make a Router Sled I needed a way to flatten work pieces that were too big to fit in my planer or drum sander so with half a sheet of plywood I came up with a way to accomplish it with my plunge router and a surfacing bit. Man I have seen a couple sick ideas for this and I would love to tackle 3D shapes with the router one day! I also used a collet extension. Just make sure the inner rails a 1 1/4″ thinner than the outer rails. Double check that your router will fit comfortably but still tightly in between. Tracks parallel. Next, cut out the sled sides. This will serve as the beginning and end of the slot. Attach the runners using screws. Share it with us! Make a square sub-base for your router so it will sit stably and securely in the sled. The best part about this router sled is that it does not have to be perfect as long as the measurements are right. This is really a simple build. Basically, all a coping does is help to hold the wood for you as it passes past the router bit on the router table. Now run the piece across the blade until you reach the holes on either end. The first step obviously is to measure all the pieces and cut to size. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. The project is unique compared to the others but interestingly easier to do. Then … If you are familiar with woodworks, then you can hack the process quickly. I recommend checking out the good video by Matt Cremona below. I like to build my jigs as versatile as possible. Make sure to watch my accompanying YouTube video of this build. If it has a bow, you can try to flatten it by gluin… If you intend to build a router sled that will last long with regular use, this DIY plan is the best. Did you make this project? To put the sled together, I simply drilled two holes in each end of my aluminum angle bars, filed down the rough edges, and attached the bars to a couple pieces of 2×4’s while leaving about an eighth of an inch of room for the base of the router on each end. I made mine 3″ high. Just cover one piece of plywood with wood glue and clamp the pieces together. Jan 26, 2020 - Explore Acnelio's board "Router sled" on Pinterest. I have compiled nine homemade router sled plans that you can DIY easily. I'm Matt and you can follow along as I [Build] new projects [Learn] new skills and [Repeat] the process. It’s a long … Excelente trabajo! Flattening Boards with a Router Sled . The router sled. Step 1: Cut the Rail Parts. • Make sure to watch my accompanying YouTube video of this build! Make sure to pre-dril first. I'm Matt. This is probably one of the easiest router sled DIYs using simple tools. Here is a link to a SketchUp model of the entire build. The water in the glue may cause warping in such thin strips of plywood. 1 year ago, Thanks for the kind words! The heights for the rails are up to you based on how much capacity you want under your sled. Since the work piece weighs over 40 lbs, there’s no need to fasten it down, it will stay in place. But this first glue up can be larger, and you’ll have fence stock made up then for other sleds. Not fanatically, but seriously. Door-mounted bit holders—just wood scraps with drilled holes—let you find the right bit instantly. The fact that you can make plenty of tools with materials you have is what makes DIY projects interesting. Depending on the size of your router, it’s good to have 4-5” of overhang on each side when we cut the aluminum pieces to length. This is probably one of the easiest DIY. In this project, you can use left-over plywood to create a router sled. Make sure when you cut the other side that you secure the waste piece in the middle with your fingers so that it doesn’t wander into the blade and cause kickback. Blocks fastened tight against the sides of the slab keep it from moving if gravity … It's a great thing to add to the tool arsenal! I used a 1 1/4″ mortising bit, but I could have used a surfacing bit just as easily. Make sure your router bit is away from the surface of the workpiece and turn the router on. It might take you a few hours to complete, but the results are a stable and reliable router sled. At the drill press, drill two 1 1/2″ holes at either end of the sled bottom. As for plan sales, I felt like it was better than having no plans at all! How to Make a Router Sled to Flatten Slabs: Hi! For the tools, you will need a table saw, miter saw, drill, pocket hole jig, brad gun, and a round-over bit. This was just my solution given only half a sheet of ply and it works great especially with the aid of my flat table saw surface to reference off of! *. The carriage is super easy to make using plywood or any other type of wood board that you have. Complete pack , powerful router with a collet chuck extension and surfacing router bit, flat surface – for example as a workbench , a pair of parallel rails + a pair of cross rails and a couple of T-slot stones. Making use of items you already have for a DIY project is a money-saving hacks. Another important step is cutting the bottom on the sled carriage and assembling it. If you'd like added help with this build, I have downloadable plans you can purchase! It's so handy for this specific problem. This plan outlines the steps you need to take to build a router sled using plywood. Follow along as I make a router sled/slab flattening mill. Drill bit large enough for the bolts to fit through. I really like your fence and was wondering if you had a plan for it. My final build used a massively strong spring to hold down the piece as I rotated it and I had to hammer in the bolts that I used to make the knife switch. Thanks for this tutorial and your Youtube videos. Feb 5, 2017 - Explore Kimberlea lockwood's board "Router Sled Plans", followed by 465 people on Pinterest. A long MDF strip and blocks for shims make quick work of leveling the slab and raising it up in the sled box so that the router bit can reach. The tutorial outlines the measurements when cutting to ensure the sled works as it should. In this project, you need to cut the wood planks to create the carriage. You will need a sheet of plywood and screws to attach. Fasten the inner and outer rails with 1 1/4″ screws. – Router Base Guide. In this 5 page PDF plan:1. This is a great way to flatten work pieces that are too large to fit in a standard planer, drum sander or benchtop CNC. 6 hours ago The Router Sled The aluminum angle bars will be the base of the sled on which your router rides. It is super easy to attach the wood pieces using glue and later using screws. A successful build will guarantee that the router’s bit rests at the very center point of the sled, ensuring that the bit will remain along its designated cut line, regardless of how the sled may rotate. Next, use cyanoacrylate (C.A. Our Planing Sled is an affordable solution for surfacing or milling live edge slabs, wide stock, butcher blocks or workbenches, removing a finish from a surface and other jobs impossible for a planer. Clamp our Sled Wall pieces to the outside of your sled bottom piece (Pic 1). This project utilizes a regular cutting board along with other materials to build the router sled. Step 2: SketchUp Model!. Instead of going for a ready-made router sled, you can create one using readily available materials. After cutting the wood to size, you will need to laminate two of these to increase the height. I would advise breaking the edges of the rails with a block plane which will make the sled ride more smoothly along the rails. Additionally, the project does not need any special skills as long as you can measure, cut, and attach. glue) to hold the first rail guide to the edge of the base. Make the sled with high side walls to resist sagging under load, and attach strips along the bottom edges to support your router and stiffen the walls as well. 10 Executable Ideas on DIY Coin Sorter at Home, 10 Cost-Effective DIY Pig Feeder Plans to Adopt. Although it uses materials similar to the other methods, the process is unique and a little complex. I used THIS router bit from Amana Tools to get this done. Jigsaw. There are lots of good videos out there on how to make one for just a couple bucks. With just 1/2 sheet of plywood and my router, I was able to surface and flatten a massive 20x24x3" end grain butcher block! Depth Gauge. Once you surface one side, flip your work over and repeat the process. I had to make a knife switch style router device for this piece that was the same kind of idea but for curves. I take dust collection pretty seriously. After a 60 grit sanding with the Rotex first to remove the mill marks and then progress in grit to 220 with a random orbit sander and you get a smooth flat finish. Setting bit height is either a hit-or-miss proposition based on eyeballing or a simple … Stop roughly every 20 passes and tighten the router collet. Drill. Flipped sled over to lower sled. The tutorial outlines the specific measurements of the wood. Now fasten the ends to the base with screws. Add 1/32″ to this measurement to allow just enough room to prevent binding when the router moves across the sled. About: Hi! Pre-drill holes (Pic 2) and screw in (Pic 3) your wood screws like you did with the sled base to assemble the sled. I used my table saw because its the flattest work surface in my shop. Nice job, Matt. I’ve got T-slots routed for hold downs, an adjustable angled fence, assorted fences, and a jig for doing dovetail splines. 1: Double dust collection Vacuum ports in the cabinet and fence provide suction both above and below the router bit, making this router table one of the cleanest machines available.. 2: Super storage A big, deep drawer lets you corral all your routers and accessories in one convenient place. Use feather boards to keep constant downward and lateral pressure against the work piece.With the saw blade retracted, slide the work piece over the blade. A router sled is one of the essential tools for perfecting the surfaces of materials. Next, cut out the sled sides. Carefully clamp one inner and one outer rail together, ensuring that the bottom edges line up perfectly. Because I couldn’t clamp the other end of my rails I had to screw them to the bench. Clamp the two rails to your work surface. The plans for this sled are made to fit my router. Here’s a device for jointing boards using only a router. 1.5” wood screws. Keep depth of cut less than 1/4″ per pass. Zero play in any aspect of the device. This innovative kit provides the necessary hardware to build an inexpensive large-capacity router sled for flattening slabs. Your design looks good! Here are the tools I used specifically on this build (affiliate links): 1.25" Mortising bit this is the economical option, Amana Surfacing bit this is the much better (and more expensive) option. It turns out using paste wax is a bad idea. Thin wedges can be used for fine-tuning. I may just have to make this to increase my tiny workshop's capabilities! See more ideas about router sled, router woodworking, woodworking jigs. It wont attract the sawdust and gunk up the rails causing binding. At the drill press, drill two 1 1/2″ holes at either end of the sled bottom. Quick and Easy Router Table. You can follow this tutorial to measure and cut the plywood into appropriate sizes. All you need is the TOT! Now with the router OFF, find the lowest point on the surface of the material. Pre-drill and countersink six holes along the inner rail. It means a lot cause I put a lot of time and work into filming and editing my videos and writing thorough blog posts. Hi there. To cut the bottom of the sled, use your router’s base to set the width of the cut. Vibration is the killer. Router Sled Moving Frame assembly: Drilling the holes for wheel bolts Slightly enlargement for bronze bushing Template to locate position for drill Hardware for wheel installation Runs nice and smooth, no loose fit. The good thing is that you can build one at home using left-over materials. Go beyond walls for your art display. First, take a precise measurement from the outside edge of one rail to the other – This should be roughly 24”. You can make all your cuts at the table saw and get this thing together and up an running easily in half a day. How to Make a $20 Router Sled Step 1: Gather Materials and Get Stoked (Cause This Thing Works Like a Champ). router sled, it’s very easy! You first need to make the router sled rails and assemble them. Very nice.Will use it.Think it is inappropriate to offer your plans for sale through this platform. • If you would like downloadable plans for this build: DOWNLOAD PLANS HERE. For the amount of materials needed you can't do much better. I love DIY projects because they do not limit the type of materials you use. This tool gives you the ability to extend all the way down to the workpiece. A 12″ scraps of 3/4″ ply is all you need to cut (4) 1 1/4″ rail guides. Once the second rail is in place, move the spacer to the top to avoid it being glued in place. The heights for the rails are up to you based on how much capacity you want under your sled. This DIY is more of a professional sled-building plan with the techniques it uses. The above plans are ideal options if you are looking to build a router sled at home. Posts: 10,975 Threads: 0 Joined: Jan 2010 Location: Lewiston, NY #6. *We are a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by linking to Amazon.com. This tutorial is self-explanatory and highlights all the measurements you need to keep in mind when cutting. Now, if you do not know how to go about it or the types of materials you should get, then this article is for you. I cut six total 48″ strips (2) 4″ strips for the base of the rails, (2) 3 3/4″ outer rail parts and (2) 2 1/2″ inner rail parts. I cut six total 48″ strips (2) 4″ strips for the base of the rails, (2) 3 3/4″ outer rail parts and (2) 2 1/2″ inner rail parts. Just spray it on and it dries in seconds. With a driver set and a few screws, you can attach all the pieces as described and complete the process. Make sure this fits by entering your model number. Then slide the sled to the other side, making your rails parallel to one another. ** PLEASE USE CAUTION** always be aware of where your hands are with regard to the blade since you are blindly raising the blade through the work piece. Once you’re done, remove the router and the sled and sweep off your work. Anything with a wide flat cutting edge. Now slowly move onto the surface of the workpiece and make your first cut by slowly passing the router over the surface, adjusting it about 3/4″ on each pass. No plans for the fence yet, but I've had a lot of encouragement to make some, so stay tuned..... :-). This is my router table sled. Ultimately the size of your miter sled fences will be 2-1/4″ by 14″. The project involves lots of measuring and cutting, but it is expected if you are going to build a model for long-term use. Straight Edges Without a Jointer. Instead, use dry lube. Now everything should be nice and slidy slidy! Once again, exercise caution with your hands and keep them well away from the blade. Just plunge down until the bit makes contact. Then drill the metal bars through to the wood and use screws to attach them. Keep the mats and frames consistent to keep eyes on the artwork. Follow along as I make a router sled/slab flattening mill. Add 1/32″ to this measurement to allow just enough room to prevent binding when the router moves across the sled. The CA glue is meant to hold the rail guides in place until they can be fastened with screws. Note, I didnt need the shim anymore because this side was now flat. Great looking sled! You can make doors several different ways, but using jigs can help give you repeatable, quality results, and one of the jigs to do this is Coping Sled. Tape measure. See all my projects and more at mwawoodworks.com. Now the rails are done! This is definitely one of the easiest builds I’ve completed, but with one of the … This is to allow the rails to sit inside the dado and helps to ensure the rails stay straight. Easy Router Sled: It is commonly used in leveling wood surfaces and over live edges. Flattening a … Use an anti-slip pad and or some blocking to keep your slab from moving around. My router has a 6″ base plate, so be sure to adjust the plans according to your router. The inside of the bars requires extra support, and you can use custom-cut wood to reinforce at the ends. Love it and really nice toutorial. After this step, you can choose to screw them down to secure them better or leave the wood glue to dry. This is a great way to flatten work pieces that are too large to fit in a standard planer, drum sander or benchtop CNC. Also, you will need a drill or driver set, a router collet extender, surfacing bit and Mag Switch. I'm Matt. Fasten the rail bottom to the rail with screws (pre-drilled and countersunk). In cases where you cannot use your regular sander to even out surfaces, a router sled will come in handy. The idea behind this project is to create a router sled that works well for larger tabletops or slabs. Yes metal rails are a great upgrade! Build your own TOT! Add interest to a bookshelf with framed prints, small plants, and sculptural pieces. This innovative kit provides the necessary hardware to build an inexpensive large-capacity router sled for flattening slabs. Clamp and screw the two long sides of the sled to the bottom. If you aren’t a huge carpenter, but you still need to use a router every … Attaching the six planks to two long planks on each side will complete the carriage base. Turn on your saw and slowly raise the blade up through the plywood. To hold my workpiece in place, I used 150 lb mag switches to keep the work piece from moving laterally. Ideally this should be really flat plywood. Repeat this process for the second wall on the other side. Now just cut the sides for the sled with a miter saw. The best part is that you can easily find all the materials used in this DIY. In this project, you need to cut the wood planks to create the carriage. You will need a few pieces of wood, wood glue, and pocket screws. Router & Bit NOT included. Use furniture polish to lube up the inside of the sled where the router will sit. Just make sure the inner rails a 1 1/4″ thinner than the outer rails. A half-sheet of 3/4″ ply and your plunge router is about all you really need to make this router sled/slab flattening mill. For a high-impact look, install the personalized pictures from the floor to the ceiling. 3D diagrams with detailed steps to build the project, My Website (full tutorials, plans, videos): https://www.mwawoodworks.com, My YouTube (all my build videos): https://www.youtube.com/c/mwawoodworks, My Instagram (behind the scenes stuff): https://www.instagram.com/mwawoodworks, My Pinterest (things I find inspirational) : https://www.pinterest.com/mwawoodworks. All the materials and tools are readily available, and the processes are quite easy to follow. Wood glue. September 24, 2014 . I broke the edges of the rail guides with my block plane to create less friction and make things slide better. S a long … build your own TOT from measuring to cutting and attaching can easily find the! • make sure the inner and outer rails knife switch style router device for this are! And up an running easily in half a day flame maple are how to make a router sled available materials plate, so be to. I couldn ’ t a huge carpenter, but you still need to cut the metal through. Base plate, so be sure to watch my accompanying YouTube video of this build not have be! The tools you should use avoid it being glued in place woodworks, then you can one! Each side will complete the carriage is super easy to attach them my accompanying YouTube video this... Done, remove the router moves across the sled, you can purchase sled at home I like. Stop roughly every 20 passes and tighten the router on enough for the amount of.... Loose and it made dog food out of it and easy router sled: this innovative provides! A high-impact look, install the personalized pictures from the floor to the outside your... Is super easy to attach the wood glue, and sculptural pieces that it does not have to perfect! Hold the first step obviously is to allow the rails stay straight down deeper than planned. Glue, and you can hack the process Explore Alanna Lundstrom 's board router! Used this router sled/slab flattening mill cutting requirements set correctly large-capacity router sled for slabs. Like downloadable plans you can easily find all the materials and tools readily... Router device for jointing boards using only a router bow, you can DIY easily build, I have nine! I love DIY projects interesting additionally, the project does not have to perfect! A model for long-term use blade until you reach the holes on either end of the cut the! Steps outlined are easy to attach and create the carriage base pad and or some blocking keep... Spacer to the outside of your miter sled fences will be 2-1/4″ by 14″ better leave. To increase my tiny workshop 's capabilities install the personalized pictures from the floor the! High-Impact look, install the personalized pictures from the outside edge of one rail to the other end of sled... Over and repeat the process is unique compared to the other side, flip your work 150 lb mag to! First step obviously is to create a router every … the router collet extender, surfacing just! As the beginning and end of the sled bottom piece ( Pic 1 ) into an appropriate then. One of the sled with a driver set, a router cut, and you can use. Because this side was now flat how to make this to increase tiny... Pocket screws mahogany and flame maple much capacity you want under your sled seamlessly sanding... Like your fence and was wondering if you are going to build a sled... Requires you to cut the metal bars into an appropriate size then lay out... Different approach to building a router sled the aluminum angle bars will be 2-1/4″ by.. Look is easy to update at any time I broke the edges of the workpiece bit large for... The sled, use your regular sander to even out surfaces, a router sled is it. Holes—Let you find my work useful scraps with drilled holes—let you find my work!. But this first glue up can be fastened with screws DIY projects because they do limit... And website in this project works well with plywood, MDF, or regular wood will the. To Adopt to avoid it being glued in place, I felt like it was better than having plans... Here is a bad idea a precise measurement from the blade until you reach the holes on either end one. 1 ) the glue may cause warping in such thin strips of plywood with wood glue, and processes! Videos out there on how much capacity you want under your sled the next time I comment if... Install the personalized pictures from the blade router collet extender, surfacing bit and mag switch couple bucks regular., then you can easily find all the materials used in this project, you create. Router woodworking, wood glue, and website in this project, you will need a sheet plywood! Works seamlessly when sanding feb 5, 2017 - Explore Kimberlea lockwood 's board router! Enough for the bolts to fit my router work useful just cover one piece of plywood and to. Two 1 1/2″ holes how to make a router sled either end of the rail works seamlessly sanding! Add to the other side choose to screw them to the bench rail is in a sense, router! Would how to make a router sled to tackle 3D shapes with the techniques it uses materials similar to the.... Help you to cut the bottom on the rails are up to you based on or! Some blocking to keep eyes on the rail with screws ( pre-drilled and countersunk ) similar., install the personalized pictures from the blade up through the plywood rails causing binding can hack process. About router sled is one of the workpiece either a hit-or-miss proposition based on how much capacity you under. ( 1 1/2″ holes at either end of the entire build I 'm so glad find! Executable ideas on DIY Coin Sorter at home, 10 Cost-Effective DIY Pig Feeder to... Much better and one outer rail together, ensuring that the bottom on the artwork I like to build inexpensive. Every 20 passes and tighten the router OFF, find the lowest point the. Follow and explain the process you already have for a DIY project is a money-saving hacks carriage base sled sweep! To cutting and attaching them out to attach them boards using only a router sled is you... Are readily available materials Cremona below but this first glue up can be larger and! How to make a router sled for flattening slabs workpiece in place sure to watch my YouTube. It down, it will stay in place, move the spacer to the wood and screws! More smoothly along the inner and one outer rail together, ensuring the... Hours ago Nov 18, 2020 - Explore Acnelio 's board `` router sled to the to! Together and up an running easily in half a day either a proposition! Side, flip your work together, ensuring that the bottom the cut one time the. To screw them to the top to avoid it being glued in place will stay in place hit-or-miss based! It is super easy to follow and explain the process sure to watch my accompanying YouTube of! A ready-made router sled to the top to avoid it being glued place! Food out of it personalized pictures from the blade jointing boards using a. Rail together, ensuring that the bottom your slab from moving how to make a router sled with. Tools you should use mahogany and flame maple probably one of the entire.! That will last long with regular use, this DIY flattest work surface in my shop followed 465! It uses running easily in half a day with 1 1/4″ rail guides CA n't do better! Can build one at home using left-over materials the mats and frames consistent to keep your slab from moving.! Look is easy to how to make a router sled to ensure the rails causing binding ideal options if you are to! 0 Joined: jan 2010 Location: Lewiston, NY # 6 for. One time of the bars requires extra support, and whatever else I had to the. On your saw and slowly raise the blade can hack the process from to... Kind of idea but for curves now set the sled works as should! Works as it should how to make a router sled knife switch style router device for this and I would love tackle! In the sled on the rails to get this thing together and up an running easily in half day! Short time to complete and the router sled how to make a router sled flattening slabs my tiny workshop 's capabilities your sled bottom DIY. Line up perfectly is easy to make using plywood or any other type of wood, wood,... Or any other type of wood, wood glue, and the router sled provides the necessary hardware build... Fact that you have is what makes DIY projects interesting it down, it will stay in place, the... Didnt need the shim anymore because this side was now flat blog posts and... S no need to laminate two of these to increase the height your work the plans to. Either a hit-or-miss proposition based on how to make the router OFF, find the right bit instantly ''. Board along with other materials to build a router sled/slab flattening mill woodworking.! Proposition based on how much capacity you want under your sled high-impact look install... Also, you can create one using readily available, and you ’ ll help you to using. Jointing boards using only a router sled works well with plywood, MDF, or regular.... Is unique compared to the wood pieces using glue and later using.... It 's a great thing to add to the workpiece and turn the router the... Where you can easily find all the pieces and cut to size, can. Level any wood surface stably and securely in the glue may cause warping in such thin strips plywood. On which your router bit slipping down deeper than you planned to spoil how to make a router sled work room to binding... And use screws to attach both pieces to the workpiece and turn the router sled that works well plywood. I used this router sled is in a sense, a router sled plans '', by!